Who invented dynamite?
Jan 13, · In , Nobel invented the Nobel patent detonator or blasting cap for detonating nitroglycerin. The detonator used a strong shock rather than heat combustion to ignite the explosives. The Nobel Company built the first factory to manufacture nitroglycerin and dynamite. In , Nobel received U.S. patent number 78, for his invention of dynamite. Dynamite, blasting explosive, patented in by the Swedish physicist Alfred Nobel. Dynamite is based on nitroglycerin but is much safer to handle than nitroglycerin alone. By mixing the nitroglycerin with kieselguhr, a porous siliceous earth, in proportions that left an essentially dry and granular material, Nobel produced a solid that was resistant to shock but readily detonable by heat or percussion.
Dynamite was invented in by a Swedish inventor, chemist and industrialist Alfred Nobel. In Alfred started experimenting with nitroglycerine. InAlfred Nobel got U. Alfred was how to sell more than 1 item on ebay on 21 st October in the year in Stockholm of Sweden.
He was the third son of Immanuel and Andriette Ahlsell Nobel. When he was just nine, his family shifted to Russia. He proudly acclaimed of himself as the world citizen as he stayed in many countries. His interest in literature forced him to write novels, poetry and plays in his free time. When he was 18, he went to the U. When he invented dynamite inmany construction and mining companies and the military placed huge orders for what year was dynamite invented safe explosive.
This brought a lot of money to him. He had many establishments to his name. In his last will Nobel laid the foundation of Nobel Prize in Since many people in the field of physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, peace work and economics have been honored with this prize. Your email address will not be published. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam.
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Exact Dates of all Inventions
Dynamite was invented by Alfred Nobel, a chemist from Sweden, in Alfred's father ran a company that made explosives. One of these explosives was "nitroglycerin". Nitroglycerin was used to blast rock in mines, to make tunnels, or to flatten ground for construction. It was very unstable, though. Alfred Nobel invented Dynamite. In he used a patent detonator or blasting cap for erupting nitro-glycerine. The detonator or the device used strong shock to explode the explosion. Previously they used to heat the combustion to ignite the explosive. raman December 10, Comments Off In , a Swedish inventor, industrialist and chemist Alfred Nobel invented dynamite and got U.S patent for dynamite in < When was the Windmill invented? When was the Hair Dryer invented? >.
Dynamite is an explosive made of nitroglycerin , sorbents such as powdered shells or clay and stabilizers. It was invented by the Swedish chemist and engineer Alfred Nobel in Geesthacht , Northern Germany and patented in It rapidly gained wide-scale use as a more powerful alternative to black powder. Today, dynamite is mainly used in the mining , quarrying , construction , and demolition industries. Dynamite is still the product of choice for trenching applications, and occasionally used as a cost-effective explosive booster for ANFO charges.
Dynamite was invented by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel in the s and was the first safely manageable explosive stronger than black powder. Alfred Nobel's father, Immanuel Nobel , was an industrialist, engineer, and inventor.
He built bridges and buildings in Stockholm and founded Sweden's first rubber factory. His construction work inspired him to research new methods of blasting rock that were more effective than black powder. After some bad business deals in Sweden, in Immanuel moved his family to Saint Petersburg , where Alfred and his brothers were educated privately under Swedish and Russian tutors.
It was in France that Nobel first encountered nitroglycerin, which Pelouze cautioned against using as a commercial explosive because of its great sensitivity to shock.
In , Nobel filed the first of several hundred patents, mostly concerning air pressure, gas and fluid gauges, but remained fascinated with nitroglycerin's potential as an explosive. Nobel, along with his father and brother Emil , experimented with various combinations of nitroglycerin and black powder.
Nobel came up with a solution of how to safely detonate nitroglycerin by inventing the detonator , or blasting cap, that allowed a controlled explosion set off from a distance using a fuse. In the summer of , Nobel performed his first successful detonation of pure nitroglycerin, using a blasting cap made of a copper percussion cap and mercury fulminate. In , Alfred Nobel filed patents for both the blasting cap and his method of synthesizing nitroglycerin, using sulfuric acid, nitric acid and glycerin.
On 3 September , while experimenting with nitroglycerin, Emil and several others were killed in an explosion at the factory at Immanuel Nobel's estate at Heleneborg. After this, Alfred founded the company Nitroglycerin Aktiebolaget AB in Vinterviken to continue work in a more isolated area and the following year moved to Germany, where he founded another company, Dynamit Nobel.
Despite the invention of the blasting cap, the volatility of nitroglycerin rendered it useless as a commercial explosive. To solve this problem, Nobel sought to combine it with another substance that would make it safe for transport and handling but yet would not reduce its effectiveness as an explosive.
He tried combinations of cement, coal, and sawdust, but was unsuccessful. Finally, he tried diatomaceous earth , fossilized algae, that he brought from the Elbe River near his factory in Hamburg , which successfully stabilized the nitroglycerin into a portable explosive.
Nobel obtained patents for his inventions in England on 7 May and in Sweden on 19 October Nobel tightly controlled the patents, and unlicensed duplicating companies were quickly shut down. A few American businessmen, however got around the patent by using absorbents other than diatomaceous earth, such as resin. Dynamite is usually sold in the form of cardboard cylinders about 20 cm 8 in long and about 3. The maximum shelf life of nitroglycerin-based dynamite is recommended as one year from the date of manufacture under good storage conditions.
Over time, regardless of the sorbent used, sticks of dynamite will "weep" or "sweat" nitroglycerin, which can then pool in the bottom of the box or storage area. For that reason, explosive manuals recommend the repeated turning over of boxes of dynamite in storage.
Crystals will form on the outside of the sticks, causing them to be even more sensitive to shock, friction, and temperature. Therefore, while the risk of an explosion without the use of a blasting cap is minimal for fresh dynamite, old dynamite is dangerous. Modern packaging helps eliminate this by placing the dynamite into sealed plastic bags, and using wax-coated cardboard. Dynamite is moderately sensitive to shock. Shock resistance tests are usually carried out with a drop-hammer: about mg of explosive is placed on an anvil, upon which a weight of between 0.
For several decades beginning in the s, the largest producer of dynamite in the world was the Union of South Africa. There the De Beers company established a factory in at Somerset West. The demand for the product came mainly from the country's vast gold mines, centered on the Witwatersrand. The factory at Somerset West was in operation in and by it was already producing , cases, 23 kilograms 50 lb each, annually.
A rival factory at Modderfontein was producing another , cases per year. There were two large explosions at the Somerset West plant during the s. Some workers died, but the loss of life was limited by the modular design of the factory and its earth works, and the planting of trees that directed the blasts upward.
There were several other explosions at the Modderfontein factory. After , pressure from trade unions forced AECI to phase out the production of dynamite. The factory then went on to produce ammonium nitrate emulsion-based explosives that are safer to manufacture and handle. Dynamite was first manufactured in the U. Giant was eventually acquired by DuPont , which produced dynamite under the Giant name until Giant was dissolved by DuPont in Circuit Court in the "Powder Case".
Two new companies were formed upon the breakup, the Hercules Powder Company and the Atlas Powder Company, which took up the manufacture of dynamite in different formulations thereafter. Currently only Dyno Nobel manufactures dynamite in the US.
The only facility producing it is located in Carthage, Missouri , but the material is purchased from Dyno Nobel by other manufacturers, who put their labels on the dynamite and boxes. This incorrect connection between TNT and dynamite was enhanced by Bugs Bunny cartoons where animators started labeling any kind of cartoon bomb ranging from sticks of dynamite to kegs of black powder as "TNT" because the acronym was shorter and more memorable and did not require literacy to recognize "TNT" meant "bomb" similar to the use of XXX markings on whiskey bottles and barrels in cartoons.
This eventually led to the general perception that TNT and dynamite were one and the same. In actuality, aside from both being high explosives, TNT and dynamite have very little in common: TNT, or trinitrotoluene , is a second generation castable explosive adopted by the military. The German armed forces adopted it as a filling for artillery shells in , some 40 years after the invention of dynamite, which is a first generation phlegmatized explosive primarily intended for civilian earthmoving.
TNT has never been popular or widespread in civilian earthmoving, as it is considerably more expensive and less powerful by weight than dynamite,  as well as being slower to mix and pack into cylindrical boreholes; for its part, dynamite has never been popular in warfare because it degenerates quickly under severe conditions and can be detonated by either fire or a wayward bullet. In the United States, in , the chemist Russell S. Penniman invented "ammonium dynamite", a form of explosive that used ammonium nitrate as a substitute for the more costly nitroglycerin.
It is rated by either "weight strength" the amount of ammonium nitrate in the medium or "cartridge strength" the potential explosive strength generated by an amount of explosive of a certain density and grain size used in comparison to the explosive strength generated by an equivalent density and grain size of a standard explosive.
Its "cartridge strength" would be its weight in pounds times its strength in relation to an equal amount of ANFO the civilian baseline standard or TNT the military baseline standard.
Various countries around the world have enacted explosives laws and require licenses to manufacture, distribute, store, use, and possess explosives or ingredients. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Explosive made using nitroglycerin. This article is about the high explosive. For other uses, see Dynamite disambiguation. Diatomaceous earth or any other type of absorbent material soaked in nitroglycerin. Protective coating surrounding the explosive material.
Blasting cap. Electrical cable or fuse connected to the blasting cap. Main article: Dynamite disambiguation. Swedish National Museum of Science and Technology. Retrieved 1 October Archived from the original PDF on 21 March Retrieved 9 June Chemistry Views. ChemViews Magazine. Retrieved 6 May Archived from the original on 30 June UNT Digital Library. Meyer, A. Homburg: Explosivstoffe. USDOE , ISBN Fire-setting Gold panning Hushing.
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