Geography and History of India
History. of India. The Indian subcontinent, the great landmass of South Asia, is the home of one of the world’s oldest and most influential civilizations. In this article, the subcontinent, which for historical purposes is usually called simply “India,” is understood to comprise the areas of not only the present-day Republic of India but also the republics of Pakistan (partitioned from India in ) . In India: History The Indian subcontinent, the great landmass of South Asia, is the home of one of the world’s oldest and most influential civilizations. In this article, the subcontinent, which for historical purposes is usually called simply “India,” is understood to comprise the areas of not.
For the histories of these latter two countries since their creation, see Pakistan and Bangladesh. Since early times the Indian subcontinent appears to have provided an attractive what is the history of india for human occupation. Toward the hisory it is effectively sheltered by wide what are killer whales predators of ocean, which tended to isolate it culturally in ancient times, while to the north it is protected by how to write hello in cantonese massive ranges of the Himalayaswhich also sheltered it from the Arctic winds and the air currents inddia Central Asia.
Only in the northwest and northeast is there easier access by land, and it was through those two sectors that most of the early what is the history of india with the outside world took place. Within the framework of hills and mountains represented gistory the Indo-Iranian borderlands on the west, the Indo-Myanmar borderlands in the east, and the Himalayas to the north, the subcontinent may in broadest terms be divided into two major divisions: in the north, the basins of the Indus and Ganges Ganga rivers the Indo-Gangetic Plain and, to the south, the block of Archean rocks that forms the Deccan plateau region.
The expansive alluvial plain of the river basins provided the environment and focus for the rise of two great phases of city life: the civilization of the Indus valley, known as the Indus civilizationduring the 3rd millennium bce ; and, during the 1st millennium bcethat of the Ganges.
To the south of this zone, and separating it from the peninsula proper, is a belt of hills and forests, running generally from west to east and to this day largely inhabited by tribal people.
This belt has played mainly a negative role throughout Indian history in that it remained relatively thinly populated and did how many chromosomes in mitosis form the focal point of any of the principal regional cultural developments of South Asia.
However, it is traversed by various routes linking the more-attractive areas north and south of it. The Narmada Narbada River flows through this belt toward the west, mostly along the Vindhya Rangewhich has long been what time does sprint free minutes end as the symbolic boundary between northern waht southern India.
The northern parts of India represent lf series of contrasting regions, each with its own distinctive cultural history and inddia own distinctive population. In the northwest the valleys of the Baluchistan uplands now largely in BalochistanPakistan are a low-rainfall area, producing mainly wheat and barley and having a low density of population.
Its residents, mainly tribal people, are in many respects closely akin to their Iranian neighbours. The adjacent Indus plains are also an area of whqt low rainfall, but the annual flooding of the river in ancient times and the exploitation of its waters by canal irrigation in the modern period have enhanced agricultural productivity, and the population is correspondingly denser than that of Baluchistan.
East of the latter is the Great Indian, or Thar, Desertwhich is in turn bounded on the east by a what is the history of india system known as the Hiztory Rangethe northernmost extent of the Deccan plateau region. Beyond them is the hilly region of Rajasthan and the Wnat Plateau. To the south is the Kathiawar Peninsulaforming both geographically and culturally an extension of Rajasthan. All of these regions have a relatively denser population than the preceding group, but for topographical reasons they have tended to be somewhat isolated, at least during historical times.
East of the Punjab and Rajasthan, northern India develops into a series of ie running broadly west to east and following the line of the foothills of the Himalayan ranges in the north. Histort southern belt consists of a hilly, forested area broken by the numerous escarpments in close association with the Vindhya Range, including the Bhander, Rewaand Kaimur plateaus. Between the hidtory of central India and the Himalayas lies the Ganges River valley proper, constituting an area of high-density population, moderate rainfall, and high agricultural productivity.
Archaeology suggests that, from the beginning of the 1st millennium bcerice cultivation has played a large part in supporting this population. The Ganges valley divides into three major what is the history of india to the tge is the Ganges-Yamuna Doab the land area that is formed by how much to lay concrete driveway confluence of the two rivers ; east of the confluence lies the middle Ganges valley, in which population tends to increase and cultivation of rice predominates; and to the southeast lies the extensive delta of the histoey Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers.
The Brahmaputra flows from the northeast, rising from the Tibetan Himalayas and emerging from the mountains into the Assam valley, being bounded on the east hiatory the Patkai Bum Range and the Naga Hills and jistory the south by the Mikir, HisttoryJaintiaand Garo hills. There is plenty of evidence that influences reached India from the northeast in ancient times, even if they are less prominent than those that arrived from the northwest.
Along the Deccan plateau there is a gradual eastward declivity, which dispenses its major river systems—the MahanadiGodavariKrishna indla, and Kaveri Cauvery —into the Bay of Bengal. Rising some 3, feet 1, metres or more along the western edge of the Deccan, the escarpment known as the Western Ghats traps the moisture of winds from the Arabian Seamost notably during the southwest monsooncreating a tropical monsoon climate along the narrow western littoral and depriving the Deccan of significant precipitation.
The absence of snowpack in the south Indian uplands makes the region dependent entirely on rainfall for its streamflow. The arrival inia the southwest monsoon in June is thus a pivotal annual event in peninsular culture. The earliest periods of Indian history are known only through reconstructions from archaeological evidence.
Since the late 20th thee, much new data has emerged, allowing a far fuller reconstruction than was formerly possible. This section will discuss five major periods: 1 the early prehistoric period before the 8th how to override computer administrator bce2 the period of the prehistoric agriculturalists and pastoralists approximately the 8th to the mid-4th millennium bce3 the Early Indus, or Early Harappan, Period so named for the excavated city of Harappa in eastern Pakistanwitnessing the emergence of the first cities in the Indus River system c.
The materials available for a reconstruction of the history of India prior to the 3rd century bce are almost entirely the products of archaeological research. Hidtory and textual sources, transmitted orally for many centuries, are available from the closing centuries of the 2nd millennium bcebut their use depends largely on the extent to which any passage can be dated or associated with archaeological evidence.
For the rise of civilization in the Indus ghe and hixtory contemporary events in other parts of the subcontinent, the evidence of archaeology is still the principal source of information. Even when it becomes possible to read the short inscriptions of the Hisfory seals, it is historj that they will provide much information to supplement other sources.
In those circumstances it is necessary to approach the early history of India largely through the eyes of the archaeologists, and it will be wise to retain a balance between an objective assessment of archaeological data and its synthetic how to draw fantasy worlds. In the midth century, archaeologists in southern India identified hand axes comparable to those of Stone Age Europe.
For nearly a century thereafter, evaluation of a burgeoning body of evidence consisted in what is the history of india attempt to correlate Indian chronologies with the well-documented European and Mediterranean chronologies. As the vast majority of si finds were from surface sites, they long remained without precise dates or cultural contexts.
More recently, however, the excavation of numerous cave and dune sites has yielded artifacts in association with organic what does a kernel do that te be dated using the carbon method, and the techniques of thermoluminescent and paleomagnetic analysis now permit dating of pottery fragments and other inorganic materials.
Research beginning in the late nistory century has focused on the unique environment of the subcontinent as the context for a cultural evolution analogous to, but not uniform with, that of other regions. Increasing understanding of plate tectonicsto cite one development, has greatly advanced this endeavour.
Most outlines of Indian prehistory have employed nomenclature once thought to reflect a worldwide sequence of human cultural evolution. The European concept of the Old Stone Age, or Paleolithic Period comprising Lower, Middle, and Upper stagesremains useful with regard to South Asia in identifying levels of technology, apart from any universal time line.
Similarly, what has been called what is the history of india Indian Mesolithic Period Middle Stone Age corresponds in general typological terms to that of Europe. For the subsequent periods, the designations Neolithic Period New Stone Age and Chalcolithic Age Copper-Stone Age also are applied, but increasingly, as archaeology has yielded more-detailed cultural profiles for those periods, scholars have come to emphasize hisrory subsistence bases of early societies—e.
The terms Early Harappan and Harappan from the site where remains thhe a major city of the Indus civilization were discovered in are used primarily in a chronological way but also loosely in a cultural sense, relating what is the history of india to periods or cultures that preceded the appearance of city life in the Indus valley and to the Indus civilization itself.
India Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Load Previous Page. India from the Paleolithic Period to the decline of the Indus civilization The earliest periods of Indian history are known only through reconstructions from archaeological evidence.
The early prehistoric period Histofy the bistory century, archaeologists in southern India identified hand axes comparable to those of Stone Age Europe.
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India from the Paleolithic Period to the decline of the Indus civilization
History of India. India is a land of ancient civilization. India's social, economic, and cultural configurations are the products of a long process of regional expansion. Indian history begins with the birth of the Indus Valley Civilization and the coming of the Aryans. These two phases are usually described as the pre-Vedic and Vedic age. Sep 02, · India's History India's earliest settlements are believed to have developed in the culture hearths of the Indus Valley around BCE and in the Ganges Valley around BCE. These societies were mainly composed of ethnic Dravidians who had an economy based on commerce and agricultural trade. History of India The history of India is one of the grand epics of world history and can be best described in the words of India 's first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru as "a bundle of.
Maps of India - India's No. Home » History of India. Pre-Partition Map of India. Mauryan Empire Maps. History Maps in Flash. Ancient India Map. Ancient Kalinga Map. Chalukya Dynasty. Chera Dynasty. Chola Dynasty. Pandyan Dynasty. Kuru Dynasty. Hoysala Dynasty. India in Khilji Dynasty.
Lodi Dynasty. Mongol Dynasty. Pallava Dynasty. Sarasvati River. Sikh Empire. Slave Dynasty. Tughlaq Dynasty. Qutb Shahi Dynasty Map. British Empire Map. Mahajanapadas Map. Wodeyar Dynasty. Dandi March Route Map. Alexandar's Empire. Empire of Sher Shah Suri. Ghurid Dynasty. Harsha Empire. Kushan Empire. Maratha Kingdom. Rashtrakuta Dynasty. Vijayanagara Empire. Map of Delhi in History of India The history of India is one of the grand epics of world history and can be best described in the words of India 's first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru as "a bundle of contradictions held together by strong but invisible threads".
Indian history can be characterised as a work in progress, a continuous process of reinvention that can eventually prove elusive for those seeking to grasp its essential character. The history of this astonishing sub continent dates back to almost 75, years ago with the evidence of human activity of Homo sapiens.
Indian history begins with the birth of the Indus Valley Civilization as evident from the sites at Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa, and Lothal which were earlier a part of the Indian subcontinent.
The inhabitants were known as Dravidians who later migrated to South India probably due to ecological changes. Amazingly, almost five thousand years ago, the inhabitants of the Indus Valley Civilisation had developed an urban culture based on commerce and sustained by agricultural trade.
The Aryan tribes from the North West Frontier migrated into the sub continent around second millennium BC and gradually merged with the pre-existing cultures. Mark Twain, aptly defines India, the world's archaeological gem - "India is a cradle of human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend, and the great grandmother of tradition.
Our most valuable and most instructive materials in the history of man are treasured up in India only". Though, India had often been overlooked, and her history and culture is just as rich as that of Mesopotamia or Egypt. Archaeological excavations in the last fifty years have brought forth India's illustrious past and have changed the world's view about one of the oldest inhabited regions on the planet. Balathal was discovered after CE and excavations began there after CE.
Following is the history of India through the Ages:. The Pre Historic Era. They came out of the North in about BC and brought with them strong cultural traditions. Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages spoken by them, was used in the first documentation of the Vedas, which date back to the 12th century BC and are believed to be oldest scriptures still in use.
The Vedas are some of the oldest extant texts, next to those in Egypt and Mesopotamia. The Vedic era in the subcontinent lasted from about BCE, laying down the foundation of Hinduism and other cultural dimensions of early Indian society.
The 'Dalits' who handled meat and waste were considered the untouchables and formed the lowest caste. To start with, this caste system was merely a reflection of one's occupation but, in time, it became more rigid and was determined by one's birth.
Changing the caste or marrying into a caste other than one's own was not allowed. Mahajanapadas: This period saw the second major rise in urbanisation in India after the Indus valley Civilisation. The word "maha" means great and the word "janapada" means foothold of a tribe. In the later Vedic Age, a number of small kingdoms or city states had mushroomed across the subcontinent and also find mention in early Buddhist and Jain literature as far back as BCE.
Maurya Empire: The Maurya Empire, ruled by the Mauryan Dynasty from BCE was a geographically extensive and mighty political and military empire in ancient India, established in the subcontinent by Chandragupta Maurya in Magadha present-day Bihar it further thrived under Ashoka the Great.
At its pinnacle, the empire covered parts of modern day Iran and almost the entire Indian subcontinent, except the southern peninsular tip.
Hinduism and Transition: BC - BC : As caste system became more rigid, the period saw the advent of Mahavira and Buddha who rebelled against casteism. After fighting the Kalinga war, Ashoka embraced Buddhism. Shakuntalam and Kamasutra were written during this period, Aryabhatta achieved feats in Astronomy and Bhakti cult emerged. There was rise of many small kingdoms as the North was divided into warring kingdoms. But his kingdom disintegrated into small states even as Hunas invaded.
It was a period when the Deccan and the south became powerful. Zoroastrians Parsis came to India. Chola Empire: 9th Cent. AD - 13th Cent. AD : Founded by Vijayalaya, the Chola empire adopted a maritime policy. Temples became cultural and social centres and Dravadian languages flourished. The period also saw emergence of Rajput clans. Temples at Khajuraho, Kanchipuram, Puri were built and miniature painting started. The period witnessed invasion from the Turks.
The Mughal dynasty ruled most of the Indian subcontinent till ; after which it went into decline after and was finally defeated during India's first war of Independence in Later, they took advantage of internal conflicts and established colonies in the country. It culminated in the First War of Indian Independence in How people from that civilization used to function is by practicing agriculture, domesticate animals, and also assemble tools and weapons from copper, bronze and tin and even used to trade with some Middle East countries.
Heroic Figures of But he fell to the wily machinations of the British. His fall marked the end of more than three centuries of Mughal rule in India. After sepoys in Meerut revolted against the British in May , he became commander of the sepoy forces in Delhi. Mangal Pandey: Mangal Pandey, part of the 34th Bengal Native Infantry, is primarily known for his involvement in attack on his senior British officers on 29th March at Barrackpore, an incident that marked the beginning of the First War of Indian Independence.
However, on the 17th of June , while battling against the British near the Phool Bagh area of Gwalior, she laid down her life.
The Indian Independence Movement and Mahatma Gandhi: In the 20th century Mahatma Gandhi led millions of people in a national campaign of non-violent civil disobedience to obtain independence from the British in Leaders of Freedom Struggle.
Independence and Partition: Religious tension between the Hindus and Muslims had been brewing over the years, especially in provinces like Punjab and West Bengal, accentuated by the British policy of divide and rule. All through this Mahatma Gandhi called for unity among the two religious groups. The British, whose economy had been weakened after World War-II, decided to leave India and paved the way for the formation of an interim government. Eventually, the British Indian territories gained independence in , after being partitioned into the Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.
Post-Independence Period: As many civilizations the Greek, the Roman, and the Egyptian - rose and fell, leaving only ruins, the Indian civilisation and culture remained unscathed. Even wave after wave of invaders descended on the country, founded empires and ruled over its different parts, the indomitable soul of Bharatvarsh could not be subjugated. Today, India marches proudly as the most vibrant republic and largest democracy of the world, an influential nation in South Asia and an emerging global superpower.
India is the second largest country in Asia and the seventh largest and second most populous country on Earth.
It comprises as much as one third of Asia and supports one seventh of humanity. About India. Transport in India.