What is a phenomenon in research

what is a phenomenon in research

Controlling the Dawn Phenomenon

The research sets out to explain certain social phenomena in modern urban areas. They claimed the depletion of the ozone layer was primarily a natural phenomenon. This kind of crime is a phenomenon of the modern age. UFO Evidence presents in-depth and quality research, resources, news and information on the UFO phenomenon. It is one of the largest internet sites on the UFO subject. Sections include selected UFO cases, UFO photos, UFO sightings, and articles and topics related to the UFO / ET / Alien phenomenon.

The small-world experiment comprised several experiments conducted by Stanley Milgram and other researchers examining the average path length for social networks of people in the United States.

The experiments are researh associated with the phrase " six degrees of separation ", although Milgram did not use this term himself. Guglielmo Marconi 's conjectures based on his radio work in the early 20th century, which were articulated in his Nobel Prize address, [2] may have inspired [ citation needed ] Hungarian author Frigyes Karinthy to write a challenge to find another person to whom he could not be connected what is a phenomenon in research at most five people.

Mathematician Manfred Kochen and political scientist Ithiel de Sola Pool wrote a mathematical manuscript, "Contacts and Influences", while working at the University of Paris in the early s, during a time when Aa visited and collaborated in their research. Their unpublished manuscript circulated among academics for over 20 years before publication in It formally articulated the mechanics of social networksand explored the mathematical consequences of these including the degree of connectedness.

The manuscript left many significant questions about networks unresolved, and one of these was the number of degrees of separation in reesarch social networks. Milgram took up the challenge on his return from Paris, leading to the experiments reported in researcb Small World Problem" in the May charter issue of the popular magazine Psychology Todaywith a more rigorous version of the paper appearing in Sociometry two years later. The Psychology Today article generated enormous publicity for the experiments, which are well known today, long after much of the formative work has been forgotten.

Milgram's experiment was conceived in an era when a number of independent threads were converging on the idea that the world is becoming increasingly interconnected. Michael Gurevich had conducted seminal work in his empirical study of the structure of social networks in his MIT doctoral dissertation under Pool.

Mathematician Manfred Kochen, an Austrian who had been involved in statist urban designextrapolated these empirical results in a mathematical manuscript, Contacts and Influencesconcluding that, in an American-sized population without social structure, "it is practically certain that any two individuals can contact one another what is a phenomenon in research means of at least two iw. In a [socially] structured population it is less likely but still seems what is a phenomenon in research. And perhaps for the whole world's population, probably only one more bridging individual should be needed.

Reeearch simulations, running on the slower computers ofwere limited, but still were able to predict that a more realistic three degrees of separation existed across the U. Milgram revisited What does good customer service mean to me experiments in acquaintanceship networks when he conducted a highly publicized set of experiments beginning in at Harvard University.

One of Milgram's most famous works is a study of obedience and authority, which is widely known as the Milgram Experiment. Gurevich's interviews served as a reeearch for his small world experiments. Milgram sought to develop an experiment that could answer the small world problem.

This was the same phenomenon articulated by the writer Frigyes Karinthy dhat the s while documenting a widely circulated belief in Budapest that individuals were separated resewrch six ij of social contact. This observation, in turn, was loosely based on the seminal demographic work of the Statists who were so influential in the design of Eastern European cities ib that period.

This circle of researchers was fascinated by the interconnectedness and "social capital" of social networks. Milgram's study results showed that people in the United States seemed to be connected by approximately three friendship links, on average, without speculating on global linkages; he never actually used the phrase "six degrees of separation".

Since rfsearch Psychology Today article gave the experiments wide publicity, What is a phenomenon in research, Kochen, and Karinthy all had been incorrectly attributed as the origin of the notion of "six degrees"; the most likely popularizer what is the best chi straightener to buy the phrase "six degrees of separation" is Whar Guarewho attributed the value "six" to Marconi.

Milgram's experiment developed out of a desire to learn more about the probability that two randomly selected people would know each other.

An alternative view of the problem is to imagine the population as a social network and attempt to find the average path length between any two nodes.

Milgram's experiment was designed to measure these path lengths by developing a procedure to count the number of ties between any two people. Shortly after the experiments began, letters researcch begin arriving to the targets and the researchers would receive postcards from the respondents. Sometimes the packet would arrive to the target in as few as one or two hops, while some chains were composed of as many as nine or ten links.

However, a significant problem was that often people refused to whta the letter forward, and thus the chain never reached its destination. In one case, of the letters never reached the destination. However, 64 of the letters eventually did reach the target contact.

Among these chains, the average path length fell around five and a half or six. Hence, the researchers concluded that people in the United States are separated by what is bonjour service windows 8 six people on average. Although Milgram himself never used the phrase " six degrees of separation phenomnon, these findings are likely to have contributed to its widespread acceptance. In an experiment in which letters were mailed out, 24 reached the target in his home in Sharon, S.

What is a phenomenon in research those 24 letters, 16 were given to the target by the same person, js clothing merchant Milgram called "Mr. Of those that reached the target what is a phenomenon in research his office, more than half came from two other men. The researchers used the postcards to qualitatively examine the types of chains that are created. Generally, the package quickly reached a close geographic proximity, but would circle the target almost randomly until it found the target's inner circle of friends.

There are a number of methodological criticisms of the small-world experiment, which suggest that the average path length might actually be smaller or larger than Milgram expected. Four such criticisms are summarized here:. In addition to these methodological criticisms, conceptual issues are debated. One regards the social relevance of indirect contact chains of different redearch of separation. Much formal and empirical work focuses on diffusion processes, but the literature on the small-world problem also phenomenln illustrates the relevance of the research using an example similar to Milgram's experiment of a targeted search in which a starting person tries to obtain some kind of resource e.

However, there is little empirical research showing that indirect z with a length of about six degrees of separation are actually used for such directed search, or that such search rrsearch are more efficient compared to other means e. The Tipping Point by Malcolm Gladwellbased on articles originally published in The New Yorker[10] elaborates on the "funneling" concept.

Phenomenob condenses sociological research, which argues that the six-degrees phenomenon is dependent on a few extraordinary people " connectors " with large networks of contacts and friends: these hubs then mediate the connections between the vast majority of otherwise weakly connected individuals. Recent work how to find out your sun moon and rising sign the effects of the small world phenomenon on disease transmission, however, have indicated that due to the strongly connected nature on social networks as a whole, removing these hubs from a researdh usually has little effect on the average path length through rresearch graph Barrett how to connect 6x9 speakers al.

Smaller communities, such as mathematicians and actors, have been found to be densely connected by chains of personal or professional associations. A similar exercise has been carried out for the actor Kevin Bacon and other actors who appeared in movies together with him — the latter effort informing the game " Six Degrees inn Kevin Bacon ".

Players of the popular Asian game Go describe their distance from the great player Honinbo Shusaku by counting their Shusaku numberwhich counts degrees of separation through the games the what is a phenomenon in research have had. The small-world question is still a popular research topic today, with many experiments still being conducted.

For instance, Peter Dodds, Roby Muhamad, and Duncan Watts conducted the first large-scale replication of Milgram's experiment, involving 24, e-mail chains and 18 targets around the world. Dodds et al.

A similar experiment using popular social networking sites as a medium was carried out at Carnegie Mellon University. Results showed that very few messages actually reached their destination. However, the critiques that apply to Milgram's experiment largely apply also to this current research. InDuncan J. Watts and Steven Strogatz from Cornell University published the first network model on the small-world phenomenon.

They showed that networks from both researrch natural and man-made world, such as power grids and the neural network of C. Watts and Strogatz showed that, beginning with a regular lattice, the addition of a small number of random links reduces the diameter—the longest direct path between any two vertices in the network—from being very pheenomenon to being very short.

The research was originally inspired by Watts' efforts to understand the synchronization of cricket chirpswhich show a high degree of coordination over long ranges as though the insects are being guided by an invisible conductor. The mathematical model which Watts and Strogatz developed to explain this phenomenon has since been applied in a researfh range of different areas. In Watts' words: [13]. I think I've been contacted by someone from just about every field outside of English literature.

I've had letters from mathematicians, physicists, biochemists, neurophysiologists, epidemiologists, economists, sociologists; whag people in marketing, information systems, civil engineering, and from a business enterprise that uses the concept of the small world for networking purposes on the Internet.

Generally, their model demonstrated phehomenon truth in Mark Granovetter 's observation that phenojenon is "the strength of weak ties" that holds together a social network.

Although the specific model has since been generalized by Jon Kleinbergit remains a canonical case study in the field of complex networks. In network theorythe idea presented in the small-world network model has been explored quite extensively.

Indeed, several classic researcj in random graph theory show that even networks with no real topological structure exhibit the small-world phenomenon, which mathematically is expressed as the diameter of the network growing with the logarithm of the number of nodes rather than proportional to the number of nodes, as in the case for a lattice.

This result similarly maps onto networks with a power-law degree distribution, such as scale-free networks. In computer sciencethe small-world phenomenon although it is not i called that is used in the development of secure peer-to-peer protocols, novel routing algorithms for the Internet and ad hoc wireless networks, and search algorithms for communication networks of all kinds. Social networks pervade popular culture in the United States whst elsewhere.

In particular, the notion of what tv series to watch next degrees has become part of the collective consciousness. Social networking how to seduce aquarius man in bed such as FacebookLinkedin, and Instagram have greatly increased the connectivity of the online space through phenomenoon application of social networking concepts. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Experiments examining the average path length for social networks. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Psychology Today. Ziff-Davis Publishing Company. Archived from the original on Retrieved JSTOR The Tipping Point. Little Brown. Sussex Publishers, LLC. Retrieved June 15, A comparison of empirical small-world studies against best-practice criteria. American Reserch Association 24 July Retrieved 29 November Science 8 August Vol.

Retrieved 13 August Social networks and social media. Distributed social network list Enterprise social networking Mobile social network Personal knowledge networking. List of social networking websites List of virtual communities with more than 1 million users. Assortative mixing Interpersonal bridge Organizational network analysis Small-world experiment Phenomenoh aspects of television Social capital Social data revolution Social exchange rssearch Social identity theory Social network analysis How to create random number generator in excel web Structural endogamy.

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Nov 27,  · Experts disagree on how many people have a dawn phenomenon. Estimates range from 3% to 50% of Type 2s and from 25% to 50% of Type 1s. Is dawn phenomenon a serious problem? It can be serious. According to the American Diabetes Association, “Some people with dawn phenomenon find that their glucose continues to rise until they eat in the morning. Mississippi State University is an equal opportunity institution. Discrimination in university employment, programs or activities based on race, color, ethnicity, sex, pregnancy, religion, national origin, disability, age, sexual orientation, genetic information, status as a U.S. veteran, or any other status protected by applicable law is prohibited. The research was originally inspired by Watts' efforts to understand the synchronization of cricket chirps, which show a high degree of coordination over long ranges as though the insects are being guided by an invisible conductor. The mathematical model which Watts and Strogatz developed to explain this phenomenon has since been applied in a.

Split-brain or callosal syndrome is a type of disconnection syndrome when the corpus callosum connecting the two hemispheres of the brain is severed to some degree. It is an association of symptoms produced by disruption of, or interference with, the connection between the hemispheres of the brain.

The surgical operation to produce this condition corpus callosotomy involves transection of the corpus callosum, and is usually a last resort to treat refractory epilepsy.

Initially, partial callosotomies are performed; if this operation does not succeed, a complete callosotomy is performed to mitigate the risk of accidental physical injury by reducing the severity and violence of epileptic seizures. Before using callosotomies, epilepsy is instead treated through pharmaceutical means. After surgery, neuropsychological assessments are often performed. After the right and left brain are separated, each hemisphere will have its own separate perception, concepts, and impulses to act.

Having two "brains" in one body can create some interesting dilemmas. When one split-brain patient dressed himself, he sometimes pulled his pants up with one hand that side of his brain wanted to get dressed and down with the other this side did not. He also reported to have grabbed his wife with his left hand and shaken her violently, at which point his right hand came to her aid and grabbed the aggressive left hand.

However, such conflicts are very rare. If a conflict arises, one hemisphere usually overrides the other. When split-brain patients are shown an image only in the left half of each eye's visual field, they cannot vocally name what they have seen. This is because the image seen in the left visual field is sent only to the right side of the brain see optic tract , and most people's speech-control center is on the left side of the brain.

Communication between the two sides is inhibited, so the patient cannot say out loud the name of that which the right side of the brain is seeing. A similar effect occurs if a split-brain patient touches an object with only the left hand while receiving no visual cues in the right visual field; the patient will be unable to name the object, as each cerebral hemisphere of the primary somatosensory cortex only contains a tactile representation of the opposite side of the body.

If the speech-control center is on the right side of the brain, the same effect can be achieved by presenting the image or object to only the right visual field or hand. The same effect occurs for visual pairs and reasoning.

For example, a patient with split brain is shown a picture of a chicken foot and a snowy field in separate visual fields and asked to choose from a list of words the best association with the pictures.

The patient would choose a chicken to associate with the chicken foot and a shovel to associate with the snow; however, when asked to reason why the patient chose the shovel, the response would relate to the chicken e. In the s, research on people with certain brain injuries made it possible to suspect that the "language center" in the brain was commonly located in the left hemisphere.

One had observed that people with lesions in two specific areas on the left hemisphere lost their ability to talk, for example. Roger Sperry and his colleague pioneered research. In his early work on animal subjects, Sperry made many noteworthy discoveries. The results of these studies over the next thirty years later led to Roger Sperry being awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in Sperry received the prize for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres.

With the help of so-called "split brain" patients, he carried out experiments, and for the first time in history, knowledge about the left and right hemispheres was revealed.

Even though Sperry is considered the founder of split-brain research, Gazzaniga's clear summaries of their collaborative work are consistently cited in psychology texts. In Sperry and Gazzaniga's "The Split Brain in Man" experiment published in Scientific American in they attempted to explore the extent to which two halves of the human brain were able to function independently and whether or not they had separate and unique abilities.

They wanted to examine how perceptual and intellectual skills were affected in someone with a split-brain. At Caltech, Gazzaniga worked with Sperry on the effects of split-brain surgery on perception, vision and other brain functions. The surgery, which was a treatment for severe epilepsy, involved severing the corpus callosum, which carries signals between the left-brain hemisphere, the seat of speech and analytical capacity, and the right-brain hemisphere, which helps recognize visual patterns.

At the time this article was written, only ten patients had undergone the surgery to sever their corpus callosum corpus callosotomy. Four of these patients had consented to participate in Sperry and Gazzaniga's research. After the corpus callosum severing, all four participants' personality, intelligence, and emotions appeared to be unaffected.

However, the testing done by Sperry and Gazzaniga showed the subjects demonstrated unusual mental abilities. The researchers created three types of tests to analyze the range of cognitive capabilities of the split-brain subjects. The first was to test their visual stimulation abilities, the second test was a tactile stimulation situation and the third tested auditory abilities.

The first test started with a board that had a horizontal row of lights. The subject was told to sit in front of the board and stare at a point in the middle of the lights, then the bulbs would flash across both the right and left visual fields.

When the patients were asked to describe afterward what they saw, they said that only the lights on the right side of the board had lit up. Next, when Sperry and Gazzaniga flashed the lights on the right side of the board on the subjects left side of their visual field, they claimed not to have seen any lights at all. When the experimenters conducted the test again, they asked the subjects to point to the lights that lit up. Although subjects had only reported seeing the lights flash on the right, they actually pointed to all the lights in both visual fields.

This showed that both brain hemispheres had seen the lights and were equally competent in visual perception. The subjects did not say they saw the lights when they flashed in the left visual field even though they did see them because the center for speech is located in the brain's left hemisphere. This test supports the idea that in order to say one has seen something, the region of the brain associated with speech must be able to communicate with areas of the brain that process the visual information.

In a second experiment, Sperry and Gazzaniga placed a small object in the subject's right or left hand, without being able to see or hear it. Placed in the right hand, the isolated left hemisphere perceived the object and could easily describe and name it. However, placed in the left hand, the isolated right hemisphere could not name or describe the object.

Questioning this result, the researchers found that the subjects could later match it from several similar objects; tactile sensations limited to the right hemisphere were accurately perceived but could not be verbalized. This further demonstrated the apparent location or lateralization of language functions in the left hemisphere. In the last test the experimenters combined both the tactile and visual test. They presented subjects with a picture of an object to only their right hemisphere, and subjects were unable to name it or describe it.

There were no verbal responses to the picture at all. If the subject however was able to reach under the screen with their left hand to touch various objects, they were able to pick the one that had been shown in the picture. The subjects were also reported to be able to pick out objects that were related to the picture presented, if that object was not under the screen.

Sperry and Gazzaniga went on to conduct other tests to shed light on the language processing abilities of the right hemisphere as well as auditory and emotional reactions as well. The significance of the findings of these tests by Sperry and Gazzaniga were extremely telling and important to the psychology world. Their findings showed that the two halves of the brain have numerous functions and specialized skills. They concluded that each hemisphere really has its own functions.

One's left hemisphere of the brain is thought to be better at writing, speaking, mathematical calculation, reading, and is the primary area for language.

The right hemisphere is seen to possess capabilities for problem solving, recognizing faces, symbolic reasoning, art, and spatial relationships. Roger Sperry continued this line of research up until his death in Michael Gazzaniga continues to research the split-brain. Their findings have been rarely critiqued and disputed, however, a popular belief that some people are more "right-brained" or "left-brained" has developed.

In the mids Jarre Levy, a psychobiologist at the University of Chicago, had set out and been in the forefront of scientists who wanted to dispel the notion we have two functioning brains. She believes that because each hemisphere has separate functions that they must integrate their abilities instead of separating them. Levy also claims that no human activity uses only one side of the brain.

In a French study by Hommet and Billiard was published that questioned Sperry and Gazzaniga's study that severing the corpus callosum actually divides the hemispheres of the brain. They found that children born without a corpus callosum demonstrated that information was being transmitted between hemispheres, and concluded that subcortical connections must be present in these children with this rare brain malformation.

They are unclear about whether these connections are present in split-brain patients though. Another study by Parsons, Gabrieli, Phelps, and Gazzaniga in demonstrated that split-brain patients may commonly perceive the world differently from the rest of us.

Their study suggested that communication between brain hemispheres is necessary for imaging or simulating in your mind the movements of others. Morin's research on inner speech in suggested that an alternative for interpretation of commissurotomy according to which split-brain patients exhibit two uneven streams of self-awareness: a "complete" one in the left hemisphere and a "primitive" one in the right hemisphere.

The two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex are linked by the corpus callosum, through which they communicate and coordinate actions and decisions. Communication and coordination between the two hemispheres is essential because each hemisphere has some separate functions. The right hemisphere controls the primary sensory functions of the left side of the body.

In a cognitive sense the right hemisphere is responsible for recognizing objects and timing, and in an emotional sense it is responsible for empathy, humour and depression. On the other hand, the left hemisphere controls the primary sensory functions of the right side of the body and is responsible for scientific and maths skills, and logic.

It is claimed that the difference between the two hemispheres is that the left hemisphere is "analytic" or "logical" while the right hemisphere is "holistic" or "intuitive. The corpus callosum is a structure in the brain along the longitudinal fissure that facilitates much of the communication between the two hemispheres.

This structure is composed of white matter : millions of axons that have their dendrites and terminal boutons projecting in both the right and left hemisphere. However, there is evidence that the corpus callosum may also have some inhibitory functions. It proves that the right hemisphere is superior for detecting faces. Research has revealed that the anterior midbody transfers motor information, the posterior midbody transfers somatosensory information, the isthmus transfers auditory information and the splenium transfers visual information.

Studies of the effects on the visual pathway on split-brained patients has revealed that there is a redundancy gain the ability of target detection to benefit from multiple copies of the target in simple reaction time. In a simple response to visual stimuli, split-brained patients experience a faster reaction time to bilateral stimuli than predicted by model.

Iacoboni also suggests there exists dual attention in split-brained patients, which is implying that each cerebral hemisphere has its own attentional system. It is important to note that the simple reaction time in split-brained patients, even with enhanced redundancy gain, is slower than the reaction time of normal adults.

Following a stroke or other injury to the brain, functional deficiencies are common. The deficits are expected to be in areas related to the part of the brain that has been damaged; if a stroke has occurred in the motor cortex, deficits may include paralysis, abnormal posture, or abnormal movement synergies.

However, recovery is generally thought not to continue past 6 months. If a specific region of the brain is injured or destroyed, its functions can sometimes be transferred and taken over by a neighbouring region. There is little functional plasticity observed in partial and complete callosotomies; however, much more plasticity can be seen in infant patients receiving a hemispherectomy , which suggests that the opposite hemisphere can adapt some functions typically performed by its opposite pair.

In a study done by Anderson, it proved a correlation between the severity of the injury, the age of the individual and their cognitive performance.

It was evident that there was more neuroplasticity in older children, even if their injury was extremely severe, than infants who suffered moderate brain injury. In the aging brain, it is extremely uncommon for neuroplasticity to occur; "olfactory bulb and hippocampus are two regions of the mammalian brain in which mutations preventing adult neurogenesis were never beneficial, or simply never occurred" Anderson, Corpus callosotomy is a surgical procedure that sections the corpus callosum, resulting in either the partial or complete disconnection between the two hemispheres.

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