Nazi Germany – SchutzStaffel SS
Jun 06, · Founded in , the “Schutzstaffel,” German for “Protective Echelon,” initially served as Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler’s () personal bodyguards, and later became one of the. Key Facts 1 From the beginning of the Nazi regime, Hitler entrusted the SS first and foremost with the removal and eventual murder 2 The SS became a virtual state within a state in Nazi Germany, staffed by men who perceived themselves as the “racial 3 The SS was specifically charged with the.
Sfand Germany was a militaristic state. Multiple groups within the Nazi Party were created in order to intimidate dles exterminate rivals and opposition. Each were created with a purpose, which changed as the Nazis rose to power. But what was the difference between these two organisations? The SA began in by Adolf Hitler. The majority of early members are disgruntled former soldiers who fought during World War I.
The SA worked as a paramilitary force which worked mainly to what does ss stand for nazi political rivals during the early rise of the Nazi Party. This force was often known as Stormtroopers or Brownshirts because of their uniform.
Hitler was arrested two days after the failed coup. In prison, he wrote Mein Kampf. Quickly growing in numbers due to the Great Depression, the SA was much larger than the army and likely was made up of about stan men. This night is now known as The Night of the Long Knives. Following the execution of its leaders, the SA was led by Viktor Lutze until his death in The SA would play a major role in Kristallnacht on November Beginning as the paramilitary force behind the rise of the Nazi Party, it soon became of lesser importance.
Its role during much of the war was the whqt the German military. This force was under the control of Heinrich Himmler and answered only to Hitler himself. The SS was recognisable by their black uniforms. From its beginning as the personal whaat of Hitler and other Nazi leaders, the SS quickly expanded both in size and in responsibility.
They also oversaw the intelligence department, which was known as the Sicherheitsdienst SD. TV A new online only channel for how to apply china visa in singapore lovers.
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Tags: Adolf Hitler Heinrich Himmler. You May also like. Age of Revolution. The Black Messiah?
Origins of the SS
Schutzstaffel - special police force in Nazi Germany founded as a personal bodyguard for Adolf Hitler in ; the SS administered the concentration camps SS constabulary, police, police force, law - the . The Schutzstaffel (SS) started out as a bodyguard detachment for Nazi Party leaders and grew into the paramilitary arm of the Nazi Party, replacing the Sturmabteilung (SA), and then into a sprawling organization responsible for the implementation of the Final Solution, running the slave labor and death camps, police agencies such as the Gestapo (State Police), Kripo (Criminal Police), Sipo (Security . The SS Bolts are a common white supremacist/neo-Nazi symbol derived from Schutzstaffel (SS) of Nazi Germany. The SS, led by Heinrich Himmler, maintained the police state of Nazi Germany. Its members ranged from agents of the Gestapo to soldiers of the Waffen (armed) SS .
It began with a small guard unit known as the Saal-Schutz "Hall Security" made up of party volunteers to provide security for party meetings in Munich. In , Heinrich Himmler joined the unit, which had by then been reformed and given its final name. Under his direction — it grew from a small paramilitary formation during the Weimar Republic to one of the most powerful organizations in Nazi Germany.
From the time of the Nazi Party's rise to power until the regime's collapse in , the SS was the foremost agency of security, surveillance, and terror within Germany and German-occupied Europe. They were tasked with the detection of actual or potential enemies of the Nazi state, the neutralization of any opposition, policing the German people for their commitment to Nazi ideology , and providing domestic and foreign intelligence. The SS was the organization most responsible for the genocidal killing of an estimated 5.
The SS was also involved in commercial enterprises and exploited concentration camp inmates as slave labor. Ernst Kaltenbrunner , the highest-ranking surviving SS main department chief, was found guilty of crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg trials and hanged in By , the Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler had created a small volunteer guard unit known as the Saal-Schutz Hall Security to provide security at their meetings in Munich.
He wished it to be separate from the "suspect mass" of the party, including the paramilitary Sturmabteilung "Storm Battalion"; SA , which he did not trust. That same year, the Schutzkommando was expanded to a national organization and renamed successively the Sturmstaffel Storm Squadron , and finally the Schutzstaffel Protection Squad; SS.
Hitler's personal SS protection unit was later enlarged to include combat units. Himmler displayed good organizational abilities compared to Heiden. The party announced that it was for "family reasons. He considered the SS an elite, ideologically driven National Socialist organization, a "conflation of Teutonic knights , the Jesuits , and Japanese Samurai ".
In , the SS-Hauptamt main SS office was expanded and reorganized into five main offices dealing with general administration, personnel, finance, security, and race matters. Although officially still considered a sub-organization of the SA and answerable to the Stabschef SA Chief of Staff , it was also during this time that Himmler began to establish the independence of the SS from the SA. In the latter half of , Himmler oversaw the creation of SS-Junkerschule , institutions where SS officer candidates received leadership training, political and ideological indoctrination, and military instruction.
The training stressed ruthlessness and toughness as part of the SS value system, which helped foster a sense of superiority among the men and taught them self-confidence. The SS was regarded as the Nazi Party's elite unit. Commitment to SS ideology was emphasized throughout the recruitment, membership process, and training. He initially intended it to be used as an SS training center, but its role came to include hosting SS dinners and neo-pagan rituals.
We shall take care that never again in Germany, the heart of Europe, will the Jewish-Bolshevik revolution of subhumans be able to be kindled either from within or through emissaries from without. The SS ideology included the application of brutality and terror as a solution to military and political problems. Hitler used this as a powerful tool to further his aims and those of the Nazi Party.
The SS was entrusted with the commission of atrocities, illegal activities, and war crimes. Himmler once wrote that an SS man "hesitates not for a single instant, but executes unquestioningly As part of its race-centric functions during World War II, the SS oversaw the isolation and displacement of Jews from the populations of the conquered territories, seizing their assets and deporting them to concentration camps and ghettos , where they were used as slave labor or immediately killed.
Members of trade unions and those perceived to be affiliated with groups that opposed the regime religious, political, social, and otherwise , or those whose views were contradictory to the goals of the Nazi Party government, were rounded up in large numbers; these included clergy of all faiths, Jehovah's Witnesses , Freemasons , Communists , and Rotary Club members. In particular, it was the primary organization which carried out the Holocaust.
After Hitler and the Nazi Party came to power on 30 January , the SS was considered a state organization and a branch of the government. The SS established a police state within Nazi Germany, using the secret state police and security forces under Himmler's control to suppress resistance to Hitler. Heydrich also continued as head of the Sicherheitsdienst SD; security service. The Gestapo's transfer to Himmler was a prelude to the Night of the Long Knives , in which most of the SA leadership were arrested and subsequently executed.
On 17 June , all police forces throughout Germany were united under the purview of Himmler and the SS. In practice, since the SS answered only to Hitler, the de facto merger of the SS and the police made the police independent of Frick's control. During Kristallnacht 9—10 November , SS security services clandestinely coordinated violence against Jews as the SS, Gestapo, SD, Kripo, SiPo, and regular police did what they could to ensure that while Jewish synagogues and community centers were destroyed, Jewish-owned businesses and housing remained intact so that they could later be seized.
Some to 1, synagogues were destroyed, mostly by arson. In September , the authority of the SS expanded further when the senior SS officer in each military district also became its chief of police.
Their role was to police the population and oversee the activities of the SS men within their district. As the SS grew in size and importance, so too did Hitler's personal protection forces. In , his larger personal bodyguard unit previously the 1st SS-Standarte was called to Berlin to replace the Army Chancellery Guard, assigned to protect the Chancellor of Germany.
In November , the name was changed to Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler. From forward, the Leibstandarte became four distinct entities, the Waffen-SS division unconnected to Hitler's protection but a formation of the Waffen-SS , the Berlin Chancellory Guard, the SS security regiment assigned to the Obersalzberg, and a Munich-based bodyguard unit which protected Hitler when he visited his apartment and the Brown House Nazi Party headquarters in Munich.
Two other SS units composed the inner ring of Hitler's protection. This unit consisted of eight men who served around the clock protecting Hitler in shifts.
It continued under separate command and remained responsible for Hitler's protection. The RSD and FBK worked together for security and personal protection during Hitler's trips and public events, but they operated as two groups and used separate vehicles. The SS was closely associated with Nazi Germany's concentration camp system. Leadership at the camps was divided into five departments: commander and adjutant, political affairs division, protective custody, administration, and medical personnel.
Members were never able to join the ranks of the German High Command and it was dependent on the army for heavy weaponry and equipment. This was primarily done to emphasize the SS as being independent of the Wehrmacht. Its units took unnecessary risks and had a higher casualty rate than the army. After the invasion, Hitler entrusted the SS with extermination actions codenamed Operation Tannenberg and AB-Aktion to remove potential leaders who could form a resistance to German occupation.
The killings were committed by Einsatzgruppen task forces; deployment groups , assisted by local paramilitary groups. Satisfied with their performance in Poland, Hitler allowed further expansion of the armed SS formations, but insisted new units remain under the operational control of the army.
In the five-day campaign, the LSSAH linked up with army units and airborne troops after several clashes with Dutch defenders.
SS troops did not take part in the thrust through the Ardennes and the river Meuse. The Germans then trapped the British and French troops in a huge pocket at Dunkirk. Two men survived. There, soldiers of the 2nd Battalion were responsible for the Wormhoudt massacre , where 80 British and French soldiers were murdered after they surrendered.
At the close of the campaign, Hitler expressed his pleasure with the performance of the SS-Leibstandarte , telling them: "Henceforth it will be an honor for you, who bear my name, to lead every German attack.
Fritz Klingenberg , a company commander in the Das Reich , led his men across Yugoslavia to the capital, Belgrade , where a small group in the vanguard accepted the surrender of the city on 13 April.
A few days later Yugoslavia surrendered. In some cases, they were joined by the Wehrmacht. Serbia became the second country after Estonia declared Judenfrei free of Jews. Of Greece's 80, Jews, only 20 percent survived the war. At first, they fought Soviet partisans , but by the autumn of , they left the anti-partisan role to other units and actively took part in the Holocaust.
While assisting the Einsatzgruppen , they formed firing parties that participated in the liquidation of the Jewish population of the Soviet Union. The SS was built on a culture of violence, which was exhibited in its most extreme form by the mass murder of civilians and prisoners of war on the Eastern Front. The extermination activities of the Einsatzgruppen generally followed a standard procedure, with the Einsatzgruppen chief contacting the nearest Wehrmacht unit commander to inform him of the impending action; this was done so they could coordinate and control access to the execution grounds.
He decided that alternate methods of killing should be found, which led to introduction of gas vans. Prisoners or auxiliaries were often assigned to do this task so as to spare the SS men the trauma. In response to the army's difficulties in dealing with Soviet partisans, Hitler decided in July to transfer anti-partisan operations to the police. This placed the matter under Himmler's purview. Himmler set the SS and SD to work on developing additional anti-partisan tactics and launched a propaganda campaign.
Thereafter, they secured rural communities and economic installations such as factories and administrative buildings. An additional priority was securing agricultural and forestry resources. The SS oversaw the collection of the harvest, which was deemed critical to strategic operations. Communists and people of Asiatic descent were killed presumptively under the assumption that they were Soviet agents.
Increasing numbers of Jews and German citizens deemed politically suspect or social outsiders were arrested. Intensification of the killing operations took place in late when the SS began construction of stationary gassing facilities to replace the use of Einsatzgruppen for mass killings.
For administrative reasons, all concentration camp guards and administrative staff became full members of the Waffen-SS in The labor needs of the war economy, especially for skilled workers, meant that some Jews escaped the genocide. By , the SS-TV had been organized into three divisions: staff of the concentration camps in Germany and Austria, in the occupied territories, and of the extermination camps in Poland.
By , it became standard practice to rotate SS members in and out of the camps, partly based on manpower needs, but also to provide easier assignments to wounded Waffen-SS members. In , Himmler founded the first SS business venture, Nordland-Verlag, a publishing house that released propaganda material and SS training manuals.
Thereafter, he purchased Allach Porcelain , which then began to produce SS memorabilia. Each had at least one factory or quarry nearby where the inmates were forced to work. Their workload was intentionally made impossibly high, under the policy of extermination through labor. By , the SS had purchased 75 percent of the mineral water producers in Germany and were intending to acquire a monopoly.
These operated in factories the SS had confiscated from Jews and Poles. The SS owned experimental farms, bakeries, meat packing plants, leather works, clothing and uniform factories, and small arms factories. Items seized included 2, On 5 July , the Germans launched the Battle of Kursk , an offensive designed to eliminate the Kursk salient.
On 17 July he called off the operation and ordered a withdrawal. Alarmed by the raids on St Nazaire and Dieppe in , Hitler had ordered the construction of fortifications he called the Atlantic Wall all along the Atlantic coast, from Spain to Norway, to protect against an expected Allied invasion. The Normandy landings took place beginning 6 June The division included tanks and 50 assault guns , plus supporting infantry and artillery.