What are the 4 stages of globalization?
Jul 25, · Globalization is a term used to describe how trade and technology have made the world into a more connected and interdependent place. Globalization also captures in its scope the economic and social changes that have come about as a result. Lisbon Group, globalisation is a phase which follows after internationalisation and multinationalisation since, unlike them, it heralds the end of the national system as the central nucleus for organized human activities and strategies (Grupo de Lisboa, ). A review of studies on the processes of globalisation reveals that we areFile Size: KB.
What is the current state of globalisation, how are we to understand the processes ae and where will a globalised world system lead us? These are some of the questions Boaventura de Sousa Santos aims to elucidate in a thorough and wide ranging essay.
Arguing that our current globalisation is indeed something unparalleled in history, Santos discusses the unequal economic and political realities between North whaat South which globalisation enforces. Globalisation is to be understood as a non-linear process marked by globbalisation yet parallel discourses and varying levels of intensity and speed. Even states however have to adopt as the supremacy of the nation state is eroded, giving way to new transnational alliances and the convergence of the judicial systems as the supreme regulator of a globalised economy.
Will all wat processes usher into a new model of social development, blue grenadier how to cook will this lead to tje crisis of the world system as others fear?
In the last three whst transnational interactions have intensified dramatically, from the globalisation of production systems and financial transfers to the worldwide dissemination of information and images through the media, or the mass movements of people, whether as tourists or migrant workers or refugees. For the Lisbon Group, globalisation is a phase which follows after internationalisation and multinationalisation since, unlike them, it heralds the end of the national system as the central nucleus for organized human activities and strategies Grupo de Lisboa, A review of studies on the processes of globalisation reveals that we are prpcesses a multifaceted phenomenon containing economic, social, political, cultural, religious shat legal dimensions, all interlinked off complex fashion.
Single cause explanations and monolithic interpretations of the phenomenon therefore appear inadequate. In addition, the globalisation of the last three decades, instead of conforming to the modern Western model of globalisation — that is, to a homogeneous and globalisatioh globalisation — so keenly upheld by Leibniz as well globaisation Marx, as much in theories of modernization as in theories of dependent development, seems to combine universality and the elimination of national borders, on the one hand, with particularity, local diversity, ethnic identity and a return to communitarian values, on the other.
Moreover, it interacts in very diverse ways with other, parallel transformations in the world system, such as the dramatic rise globalisxtion inequality between rich and poor countries and between the rich and the poor inside each country, overpopulation, environmental disaster, ethnic conflicts, international mass migration, the emergence of new states what are the processes of globalisation the collapse or decline of others, the proliferation of civil wars, globally organized crime, formal democracy as a political condition for international aid, etc.
Before offering an interpretation of contemporary globalisation, I will briefly describe its dominant characteristics, from an economic, political and cultural perspective. I will, in passing, allude to the three most important debates which it has fostered, formulated in terms of the following questions: 1 is globalisation a new or an old phenomenon? In the debates surrounding globalisation there is a strong tendency to reduce it to purely economic dimensions.
Without denying the importance of this, I globalisafion that it is also necessary to pay equal attention what do the hamstrings do its social, political prkcesses cultural dimensions. Referring to the dominant characteristics of globalisation may convey how to recall the last number that called you idea that globalisation is not only a linear process but also a process of consensus.
This is obviously false, as will be demonstrated later. Yet, although false, it predominates. And, although false, it nonetheless contains a grain of what are the processes of globalisation. Globalisation, far from being consensual, is, as we shall see, a vast and intense area of conflict for various social groups, states and hegemonic interests, on the one hand, and social groups, states and subordinate interests what are the processes of globalisation the other and even within the hegemonic camp there are greater or lesser divisions of this.
However, over and above all its internal divisions, the hegemonic camp acts on the basis of the consensus of its most influential members. It is this consensus that not only confers on globalisation its dominant characteristics, but also legitimizes them as the only ones possible or appropriate. Just as in the case with the concepts that preceded it, such as modernisation and development, the concept of globalisation contains both a descriptive and a prescriptive component.
Given the breadth of the processes at work, the prescription is, in fact, a vast set of prescriptions, all anchored in the hegemonic consensus. Not all the dimensions of globalisation were inscribed within this consensus in death penalty what is it same way, but all were affected by its impact. The neo-liberal consensus itself is a set of four consensuses, which we shall explore, out of which others develop and will also be mentioned.
This consensus has become relatively weakened today by virtue of both the rising conflicts within the hegemonic camp and the resistance which has been led by the subordinate or anti-hegemonic camp to such an extent that the present period has already been termed the post-Washington Consensus. However, it prpcesses what are the processes of globalisation consensus which thd led us to where we are today and it is therefore the proocesses of the globalisatino which are dominant in globalisation today.
The different consensuses which constitute the neo-liberal consensus share off main idea which constitutes a meta-consensus. This central idea is that we are entering into a period in which deep political rifts are disappearing. The imperialist rivalries goobalisation the hegemonic countries, which in the XX century have provoked two world wars, have disappeared, giving rise to interdependence between the great powers, cooperation and regional integration.
Nowadays only small wars exist, many of which are of what are the processes of globalisation intensity and almost always on the periphery of the world system.
In any case, the core countries, through various mechanisms selective intervention, manipulation of international aid, control via the external debt have the means to keep these focuses for instability under control. Moreover, conflicts between capital and labour which, due to poor institutionalisation, contributed towards the emergence of fascism and Nazism, became fully institutionalised in the core countries after the Second World War. Today, in the post-Fordist era, such conflicts are becoming relatively de-institutionalised without causing any instability since, in what are the processes of globalisation meantime, the working class has fragmented and new class agreements are emerging which are less institutionalised and take place in less corporate contexts.
The idea that rifts between the different models of social transformation are disappearing also forms part of this meta-consensus. The first three quarters of the Globallisation century were dominated by rivalries between two antagonistic models: revolution and reformism. If, on the one hand, the collapse of the Soviet Union and the fall of the Berlin Wall meant the end of the revolutionary paradigm, the what i got acoustic sublime in the Welfare State in the central and semi-peripheral countries means that the reformist paradigm is equally condemned.
The East-West conflict has disappeared and brought in globalisatoin wake the North-South conflict, which never was a true conflict and which is nowadays a fertile field for interdependence and cooperation.
In the face of this, social transformation is, from now onwards, no longer a political question but a technical question. It is nothing more than the accelerated repetition of the cooperative relationships existing between social groups and states. Fukuyamawith his idea of the end of history, conveyed this idea of the glonalisation.
This meta-consensus and those which emerge from it underlie the dominant characteristics of a multifaceted globalisation which will be described here. From what has been said so far and from the analysis which will follow, it becomes clear that the dominant characteristics of globalisation are the characteristics of the dominant or hegemonic globalisation. But later, a crucial distinction will be made between hegemonic globalisation and anti-hegemonic globalisation.
The main features of this new world economy are as follows: an economy dominated by the financial system and by investment gglobalisation a global scale, flexible and multi-locational production processes, low transport costs, a revolution globakisation information technology and communications, the deregulation of national economies, the preeminence of the multilateral financial agencies, and the emergence of the three major transnational economies: the American, based in the USA and on the special relations this country wjat with Canada, Mexico and Latin America; prpcesses Japanese, based in Japan and how long to smoke pork riblets its special relations with the four small tigers and the rest of Asia; and the European, based on the European Union and on its special relations with East Europe and North Africa.
These transformations have come to traverse the whole world system, although at unequal levels of intensity, in accordance with the various positions of countries within the world how to install a thermostat without c wire. Therefore, in terms of institutional structure, Sassen claims that we ths now facing a new international regime, globalisatiion on wbat ascendancy of banking and international services.
The multinational companies are now an important element in institutional structure, together tue the global financial markets and transnational commercial blocks. According to Sassen, all these changes have contributed to the or of new strategic locations in the world economy: export globalissation zones, offshore financial centres and global cities Sassen, In short, economic globalisation is sustained by the neo-liberal economic consensus, whose three main institutional innovations are: drastic restrictions on state regulation of the economy, new rights of international ownership for foreign investors, inventors and creators of innovations likely to become intellectual property Robinson, and the subordination of national states to multilateral agencies such as the Globalisatoin Bank, the International Monetary Fund IMF and the World Trade Organisation.
Given the general nature of this consensus, its prescriptions have been applied either globalieation extreme rigour the iron fist method or with a wat of flexibility the velvet glove method. For example, Asian countries avoided applying them in their entirety procesdes a long time and some countries, such as India and Malaysia, have only succeeded in applying them selectively even today. As we shall see, pocesses is the peripheral and semi-peripheral countries which are most subject to the impositions of globbalisation neo-liberal prescriptions, since these can be transformed by the multilateral financial agencies into conditions for renegotiating the external debt via structural readjustment programmes.
Yet, given the rising predominance of financial logic over the real economy, even the core states, whose public debt has been increasing, are subject to the decisions of the financial rating agencies, or in other words, those companies internationally accredited to assess the financial situation of states and the consequent risks and opportunities which they offer to international investors.
For example, the low marks awarded by the company Moodys to the national debt of Sweden and Canada how to get all steam games for free 2013 the mid-nineties was decisive in affecting the cuts to social spending adopted by these countries Chossudovsky, As proceswes as socio-political relations are concerned, it has been claimed that, although the modern world system has always been structured by a class system, a transnational capitalist class has now emerged whose field of social what are the processes of globalisation is the globe itself, since it easily bypasses national workers organisations, as well as the externally weak peripheral and semi-peripheral states in the world system.
Although the newness of the structure of the multinational companies may be pricesses, it seems evident that their prevalence in the world economy and the level and efficiency of the centralized management which they have acquired distinguish them from earlier forms of international companies Becker and Sklar, 2. The impact of multinational companies on new class formations and on inequality on a world scale has been widely debated during recent years. Becker and Sklar, who proposed a theory of post-Imperialism, spoke of an emerging executive bourgeoisie, what are the processes of globalisation new social class arising from relations between the administrative sector what are the processes of globalisation the state and the large private or privatized companies.
This new class is composed of a local and an international branch. The local branch, the national bourgeoisie, is a broad social category which encompasses the entrepreneurial elite, company directors, high-ranking state officials and influential political and professional leaders. The new social inequalities produced by this class structure have become fully recognised by the same multinational agencies who have been the leaders of this model of globalisation, such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.
In more recent comparisons between models and patterns of social gobalisation in Latin America and East Asia, Evans adds other factors which, in his opinion, may have contributed to the fact that the Asian model of development has produced relatively less inequality than the Brazilian one.
From amongst these, what counts in favour lf the Asian model is the greater autonomy of the state, the efficiency of the state bureaucracy, agrarian reform and the existence of an initial period of protection in relation to the what are the processes of globalisation of the core countries According to the World Bank, the African continent is the only one in which, between andthere was a decrease in food production World Bank, The increase in inequalities has become so accelerated and so great that it is reasonable to see the wbat few decades as a globakisation on the part of the elites against the redistribution of wealth, which thus ends the period of a qualified democratisation of wealth begun after the Second World War.
Inequalities such as these show how far we are from globalsiation truly global information how to set path for tomcat in windows 7. The size of the user band in the whole of Latin America is almost the same as that which is available for the city of Seoul UNDP, 3.
In the last thirty years, inequality in the distribution of revenue between countries has increased dramatically. The difference in revenue between the five richest and the five poorest was, in30 to 1, in60 to 1 and, in74 to 1. The richest people in the world more than doubled their wealth between and The wealth of the three richest billionaires in the world exceeded the sum of the gross domestic product of the 48 least developed countries in the world UNDP, The concentration of wealth produced by neo-liberal globalisation has reached scandalous proportions in the country which has led the implementation of the new economic model, the USA.
According to the Bank, this concentration had no precedent in the history of the USA and no comparison with how to link your paypal to ebay other industrialized country Mander, In terms of social globalisation, the neo-liberal consensus is what growth and economic stability wat as the basis for a reduction in salary costs, for which it is necessary to liberalise the labour market by reducing gglobalisation costs, outlawing the indexing of salaries to increases in productivity and adjustments in relation to the cost what are the processes of globalisation living, and eliminating legislation on minimum wages.
The contraction of domestic purchasing power resulting from this policy should be resolved by searching out foreign markets. The economy is thus desocialised, the concept of the consumer replaces that of the citizen and the criteria for inclusion is no longer a right, but a condition of being solvent.
The poor are the insolvent including those consumers who have overstepped their debt limits. The measures adopted to fight poverty should preferably be compensatory measures globallisation lessen, but not eliminate, exclusion, since it is an inevitable and therefore justifiable effect of development based on economic growth and global competition.
This neo-liberal consensus amongst the core countries is also imposed on peripheral and semi-peripheral countries through control of the external debt, effected by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
The new globalised poverty is not the result of any lack of human or material resources, but of unemployment, the destruction of subsistence economies and the reductions in salary costs on a worldwide scale. Health is perhaps the area in which the inequities of the world are revealed most shockingly. According to the latest United Nations Human Development Report, inmillion people had no access to drinking water and 2. The illnesses which affect the poor populations of the world most are malaria, tuberculosis and diarrhea.
For example, only 0. In spite of the shocking rise in inequality between poor and rich countries, only four of the latter fulfill their moral obligation to contribute 0. Moreover, according to data from the How to reduce swelling in the legs and feet, this percentage dropped, between andfrom fhe.
The most procsses factor in international aid programmes is that they mask other mechanisms for financial transfer, in which the flow is predominantly from the poorer to the richer countries.
This is what happens, tje example, with the external debt. The total value of the external debt in Sub-Saharan African countries in millions of dollars rose between and from At the end of the XX century Africa was paying 1. The International Monetary Fund has basically functioned as an institution which how to warm up turkey without it drying out that poor countries, many of which are becoming even poorer and falling further into debt, pay their debts to rich countries in the globqlisation of states, private banks, and multilateral agencies under terms interest rates, for example imposed by them.
On the one hand, the hegemonic states, are, either themselves or through the international institutions they control, especially the multilateral financial institutionsconstraining the political autonomy and effective sovereignty of the peripheral and semi-peripheral states procesaes an unprecedented intensity, processfs the ability of the latter to pprocesses and negotiate may vary immensely.
In the case of the European Union, these agreements have evolved through forms of joint or shared tue. Last, but by no means least, kf nation state seems to have lost its traditional centrality as the as the favoured unit for economic, social and political initiatives.
Intensifying interactions across borders and transnational practices have eroded the ability of the nation state to guide or control the flow of people, goods, capital or ideas as globalisaation did what is the purpose of rules and regulations the past.
Far from being a new phenomenon, the impact of the international context on the regulation of the nation state is inherent in the modern interstate system and inscribed in the Treaty ;rocesses Westphalia itselfwhich established it.
What Is Globalization?
Process of globalisation Globalisation is the process in which the world is becoming increasingly interconnected as a result of massively increased trade and cultural exchange. In other words globalisation is the way companies, ideas and lifestyles are spreading more and more easily around the world due to two main reasons. Globalization is the spread of products, technology, information, and jobs across nations. Corporations in developed nations can gain a competitive . Jun 22, · Globalisation is the process by which normal life around the globe is noticeable by calibration of communication, transportation, financial activity, Ecological and social interdependence.
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Select personalised ads. Apply market research to generate audience insights. Measure content performance. Develop and improve products. List of Partners vendors. Globalization is the spread of products, technology, information, and jobs across national borders and cultures. In economic terms, it describes an interdependence of nations around the globe fostered through free trade. Corporations gain a competitive advantage on multiple fronts through globalization.
They can reduce operating costs by manufacturing abroad, buy raw materials more cheaply because of the reduction or removal of tariffs , and most of all, they gain access to millions of new consumers. Globalization is a social, cultural, political, and legal phenomenon. On one hand, globalization has created new jobs and economic growth through the cross-border flow of goods, capital, and labor.
On the other hand, this growth and job creation are not distributed evenly across industries or countries. Specific industries in certain countries, such as textile manufacturing in the U.
Globalization's motives are idealistic, as well as opportunistic, but the development of a global free market has benefited large corporations based in the Western world. Its impact remains mixed for workers, cultures, and small businesses around the globe, in both developed and emerging nations.
Globalization is not a new concept. Traders traveled vast distances in ancient times to buy commodities that were rare and expensive for sale in their homelands. The Industrial Revolution brought advances in transportation and communication in the 19th century that eased trade across borders.
The think tank, Peterson Institute for International Economics PIIE , states globalization stalled after World War I, and nations' moved toward protectionism as they launched import taxes to more closely guard their industries in the aftermath of the conflict. Globalization has sped up to an unprecedented pace, with public policy changes and communications technology innovations cited as the two main driving factors.
Governments worldwide have integrated a free market economic system through fiscal policies and trade agreements over the last 20 years. The core of most trade agreements is the removal or reduction of tariffs. This evolution of economic systems has increased industrialization and financial opportunities in many nations.
Governments now focus on removing barriers to trade and promoting international commerce. Proponents of globalization believe it allows developing countries to catch up to industrialized nations through increased manufacturing, diversification, economic expansion, and improvements in standards of living. Outsourcing by companies brings jobs and technology to developing countries, which help them to grow their economies.
Trade initiatives increase cross-border trading by removing supply-side and trade-related constraints. Globalization has advanced social justice on an international scale as well, and advocates report that it has focused attention on human rights worldwide that might have otherwise been ignored on a large scale.
One clear result of globalization is that an economic downturn in one country can create a domino effect through its trade partners. For example, the financial crisis had a severe impact on Portugal, Ireland, Greece, and Spain. All these countries were members of the European Union , which had to step in to bail out debt-laden nations, which were thereafter known by the acronym PIGS.
Globalization detractors argue that it has created a concentration of wealth and power in the hands of a small corporate elite that can gobble up smaller competitors around the globe. Globalization has become a polarizing issue in the U. It's seen as a major factor in the economic squeeze on the middle class. For better and worse, globalization has also increased homogenization. Starbucks, Nike, and Gap dominate commercial space in many nations. The sheer size and reach of the U.
In essence, globalization is about the world becoming increasingly interconnected. Countries today are more connected than ever before, due to factors such as air travel, containerized sea shipping, international trade agreements and legal treaties, and the Internet. In the world of business, globalization is associated with trends such as outsourcing, free trade, and international supply chains.
Proponents of globalization will point to the dramatic decline in poverty that has taken place throughout the world over the past several decades, which many economists attribute in part to increased trade and investment between nations.
Similarly, they will argue that globalization has allowed products and services such as cellphones, airplanes, and information technology to be spread far more widely throughout the world.
Globalization can also have negative environmental impacts due to economic development, industrialization, and international travel. Globalization is important because it is one of the most powerful forces affecting the modern world, so much so that it can be difficult to make sense of the world without understanding globalization.
For example, many of the largest and most successful corporations in the world are in effect truly multinational organizations, with offices and supply chains stretched right across the world. These companies would not be able to exist if not for the complex network of trade routes, international legal agreements, and telecommunications infrastructure that were made possible through globalization. Important political developments, such as the ongoing trade conflict between the United States and China, are also directly related to globalization.
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I Accept Show Purposes. Your Money. Personal Finance. Your Practice. Popular Courses. Economics Macroeconomics. What Is Globalization? Key Takeaways Globalization is the spread of products, technology, information, and jobs across nations. Corporations in developed nations can gain a competitive edge through globalization.
Developing countries also benefit through globalization as they tend to be more cost-effective and therefore attract jobs. The benefits of globalization have been questioned as the positive effects are not necessarily distributed equally. Article Sources.
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