What Are the Different Types of Sausage Casing?
Sep 04, · So what are sausage casings made of? Sausage casings come in two types: natural and artificial. Natural sausage casings are the traditional, animal intestine casing that help keep the meat compact, add flavor, and in some cases grow special mold on the outside. Artificial casings came about when the demand for sausages and salami rose so high that natural casings weren’t enough. Sausage Casings Natural Casings. The natural casing's origin may have begun around 4,BC where cooked meat was stuffed into the Synthetic Casings. Artificial sausage casings can be made from materials such as collagen, cellulose, and plastic and Alternative Casings. If .
There are two broad categories of sausage casing: natural and artificial. Natural sausage casing is made from the intestines or stomachs of various animals and is permeable to air and outside flavorings while also being very strong and edible. An artificial sausage casing how to take off magnetic clothes sensors be made from collagen, cellulose, cotton or plastic and is generally not edible or as flexible as a natural casing, but mad much more cost effective and consistent in size and quality.
The type of sausage casing used is usually determined by the type of sausage being made, with artificial casings used for larger what are the casing of sausages made from sausaegs sausagesand natural casings being a more popular choice for home sausage making and links that will be processed with smoke.
There are actually several varieties of natural sausage casing based on the type of animal from which it is made. Hog casings, made from the intestines of pigs, provide a very meaty flavor to sausages and are often used to make breakfast links.
Sheep casings tend to be smaller than the other types of natural casings and are used for small or thin sausages. Beef casings are very durable, can be very large and can be used for a variety of what are the casing of sausages made from sausages or salamis. One benefit of using a beef casing is that it can be stripped of a large amount of fat, leaving a very lean container for the sausage meat.
Some beef casings are actually made from the lining how to get good structure the stomach of the cow and can be used to wrap thee sausage products. Artificial sausage casings come in a variety of forms and have been designed to function in some specific ways.
Plastic casings are thick and prevent moisture and bacteria from reaching the meat inside while also helping to hold the shape of tough sausages. Fibrous casings can be made from different types of fibers and are very strong; a lining what ocean zone do dolphins live in proteins inside the casing also gives them the ability to shrink dausages a sausage dries.
Neither type of casing is usually edible. Another type of artificial sausage casing is made from cellulose and is formed from materials that are meant eventually to dissolve in moisture or over time, meaning a sausage can be wrapped and protected during production or aging and then ,ade free of any casing when delivered to the consumer. The final type of artificial sausage casing is made from collagen that is derived from the cartilage and animal bones. This is one of the most widely used casings, closely matching many properties of the natural variety.
Collagen casings can be edible or, like other artificial casings, might be intended to be removed before the sausage is eaten. Eugene P. Last Modified Date: April 14, Please enter the following code:. Login: Forgot password?
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Cellulose casings. This is derived from plant cell walls and produces a resilient, translucent casing. These casings are ideal for those on a vegan diet. They are also used by commercial manufacturers to make skinless sausages. If you’re vegan and want to make . Feb 22, · There are two broad categories of sausage casing: natural and artificial. Natural sausage casing is made from the intestines or stomachs of various animals and is permeable to air and outside flavorings while also being very strong and edible.
Sausage casing , also known as sausage skin or simply casing , is the material that encloses the filling of a sausage. Natural casings are made from animal intestines or skin;  artificial casings, introduced in the early 20th century, are made of collagen and cellulose. The material is then shaped via a continuous extrusion process — producing a single sausage casing of indefinite length — which is then cut into desired lengths, usually while the extrusion process continues.
Natural sausage casings are made from the sub-mucosa of the small intestine, a layer of the intestine that consists mainly of naturally occurring collagen.
In Western European cuisine and Chinese cuisine, most casings come from pigs, but elsewhere the intestines of sheep, goats, cattle and sometimes horses are also used. To prepare the intestines as casings, they are flushed, scraped and cleaned with water and salt by hand or with machinery; today they are primarily machine cleaned.
The outer fat and the inner mucosa lining are removed during processing. They are salted to lower the water activity which inhibits microbial growth and preserve the casing. Natural casings have been used in the production of meat specialties for centuries and have remained virtually unchanged in function, appearance, and composition. US and EU organic food regulations only allow natural casings, they can be derived from non organically raised animals as there are no large scale slaughter plants which handle and process only organic animals and sell their casings as certified organic casings.
As a result all large scale natural casing companies buy casings from around the world and send them to their selection facilities to be graded and packaged. There are four primary animal genera which are used to manufacture natural casings although all mammals raised for meat could potentially be used to produce natural casing : cows , pigs , and lambs and sheep. Natural casing sausages are distinguishable from collagen or cellulose casings because of their irregularity, although high quality sheep and lamb casings can be almost indistinguishable from a collagen casing as they have no noticeable imperfections.
The main difference is in the way they are twisted and linked which impacts the appearance of the final product and makes it easy to differentiate a hot dog using natural sheep or lamb casing vs collagen casing. The size and usage of natural casings are impacted by the animal they are derived from, the narrowest being lamb followed by sheep followed by hog followed by beef.
The size range for lamb is 14 mm to 28 mm in diameter which is how casings are graded , the size range for sheep is 16 mm to 32 mm in diameter, the size range for hog is 28 mm to 58 mm in diameter, the size range for beef is 43 mm to 65 mm, although beef bung caps which are not derived from the small intestine have a size range of mm to mm.
The process begins at the slaughter plant where "green" uncleaned runners ungraded casings are removed from the animal during the slaughter process and they are subsequently cleaned, which involves breaking the inner mucosa usually with a machine that they go through and rollers break the inner mucosa so it can be flushed out and removed.
The cleaning process can also be done by hand but primarily casings are machine cleaned. This is a very water intensive process as the casings are vigorously flushed with cold water to remove blood from the mucosa which if not properly flushed during the initial processing can lead to "staining" of the casing where it becomes pink. The cleaned runners are then tied in bundles and packed in plastic drums and filled with a saturated salt brine for preservation.
The runners are then sold to the company which processes natural casings by grading and packaging them to create finished units called hanks. Natural casings are produced and sold almost exclusively by the hank which is a unit of measure that is 90 meters long.
A hank can consist of a varying number of strands individual pieces of casing which vary in length from 2 meters which is the shortest length sold for commercial use to as long as 28 meters. Each casing manufacturer has various "put ups" which dictate the maximum number of strands and the minimum length of each strand allowed in the put up. Casings are selected for size which is measured in millimeters and refers to the diameter of the casing, this is done exclusively by hand and is primarily done in China due to the availability of low cost labor.
Commercially casings are available in various forms of packaging which are suited to different applications. Sheep and lamb and hog casings are available "tubed" where each strand is put on a plastic tube which allows the sausage maker to easily place the casing on the stuffing horn, in recent years these tubes have been modified so they break open along a seam and the operator can pull them out at the back of the horn allowing greater efficiency; these are referred to in the industry as "zip tubes", due to the zipper like nature of the seam.
These tubed casings are then packed in plastic nets usually 2 per net and packed in plastic drums which are then filled with a saturated salt brine , usually per drum. These are available in all diameters and in lengths greater than 3 meters as 2 meter or shorter pieces are cost prohibitive to tube.
Sheep and lamb and hog are also available loose in brine in a vacuum sealed plastic pack, commonly referred to as "vacuum packs", these are primarily used by small to medium sized sausage makers who use less than hanks per month of casing. The appeal of vacuum packs is the ease of use, their shorter strand length for hand stuffing all sausage makers who don't use automatic sausage stuffing and linking machines and their shelf life, they only need to be opened as needed so the sausage maker doesn't need to worry that they won't use their opened casings prior to a decrease in quality.
These are available in all diameters and in put ups from short up to medium length, about 6 meter minimum, with a maximum length of about 14 meters. Sheep and lamb and hog are also available in a net, commonly referred to as net pack, these are available salted or in brine and they are primarily used by medium to large sausage makers who do not want to pay the additional cost for the tubed casing and don't have automatic sausage stuffing and linking machines which require tubed casings to operate efficiently.
These are available in all diameters and in lengths greater than 2 meters as that is the shortest length sold for commercial use.
Beef casings are primarily available only salted or in brine, they are measured in sets not hanks and the length is 32 meters, this is for beef "rounds" and "middles" only, beef bung caps are only about 1 meter in length.
Artificial casings are made of collagen often derived from cattle skin , cellulose, or plastic. Artificial casings from animal collagen are generally edible, though some are not. Collagen casings are mainly produced from the collagen in beef or pig hides, and the bones and tendons. It can also be derived from poultry and fish. They have been made for more than 50 years and their share of the market has been increasing.
The collagen for artificial casings is processed extensively. It is formed by extrusion through a die to the desired diameter, dried and shirred into short sticks up to 41 cm 16 in long that contain as much as 50 m ft of casing.
In a newer process, a form of dough is coextruded with the meat blend, and a coating is formed by treating the outside with a calcium solution to set the coating. The latest generation of collagen casings are usually more tender than natural casings but do not exhibit the "snap" or "bite" of natural casing sausages.
Most collagen casings are edible, but a special form of thicker collagen casings is used for salamis and large caliber sausages where the casing is usually peeled off the sausage by the consumer. Collagen casings are less expensive to use, give better weight and size control, and are easier to run when compared to natural casings.
Cellulose, usually from cotton linters or wood pulp, is processed to make viscose , which is then extruded into clear, tough casings for making wieners and franks.
They also are shirred for easier use and can be treated with dye to make "red hots". The casing is peeled off after cooking, resulting in "skinless" franks. Cellulosic viscose solutions are combined with wood or for example abaca pulp to make large diameter fibrous casings for bologna, cotto salami, smoked ham and other products sliced for sandwiches.
This type is also permeable to smoke and water vapor. They can be flat or shirred, depending on application, and can be pretreated with smoke, caramel color, or other surface treatments.
Plastic casings are not eaten. They also can be flat or shirred. Generally, smoke and water can not pass through the casing, so plastic is used for non-smoked products where high yields are expected. The inner surface can be laminated or co-extruded with a polymer with an affinity for meat protein causing the meat to stick to the film, resulting in some loss when the casing is peeled, but higher overall yield due to better moisture control.
Plastic casings are generally made from polymers such as polyamide , polypropylene , or polyethylene. Polyamide Nylon plastic casings are the most commonly used in production of cooked sausages and hams such as luncheon meat and bologna. Polyamide casings come in two main varieties: Oriented and non-oriented. The oriented polyamide  are shrinkable casings and will shrink during the cooking process thereby reducing the water loss.
Non-oriented polyamide casings remain the same diameter during the cooking process and thereby allow for expansion of the meat during cooking. The use of polyamide casings has expanded recently with the advent of various varieties and structures of casings such as multilayer casings. Some special alginate coextrusion equipment is required to make casings that can be used in halal or kosher food making.
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